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Origins of Film Cartoon / Animation

  • Monday, August 29, 2011
  • Ropiadi
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  • Animation
    is a technique that a lot of wear in the film world today, both as a unified whole, part of a film, and united with the film live. Actually rooted in the world of film photography, while rooted in the world of animated drawings, which illustrate graphic design (visual communication design). Through their history, both photography and illustration have new dimensions and forms in the live and animated films.

    It could be argued that the animation is a medium that was born from the two conventions or disciplines, namely clan movie images. To understand the clan wear the animation technique, both the convention must be understood and to understand.

    Film, usually used for recording a state, or express something. Movies used to fulfill a common requirement, namely to communicate an idea, message or reality. Because of the uniqueness of its dimensions, the clan because of the nature of entertainment, the film has been accepted as one of the audio visual media the most popular and loved. Because it is also regarded as the most effective medium.

    To be able to use the film medium there are two main problems to be faced, namely technical problems clan movie suggests a technical problem something premises film or so-called presentation techniques. Likewise, there is to know in the animated film, the animation technique problems, and communicate technical problem something with the animation techniques. Frequent communication techniques more familiar words of art said to communicate.

    In actual fact this is very closely related to various fields of art, whether visual or verbal or teateral. For a communications planner, this activity is very important to understand. A filmmaker will be facing a technical problem of making films and art of making movies.

    All the things written in this discussion, not a limitation, but a way of seeing and a summary of issues that must be

    Origins of Film Animation Techniques
    Human desire to create an image or santiran (image) that lives and moves as pantara of disclosure (expression) them,
    embodies the basic form of animation that life evolved. The word itself is actually animated adaptation of the word animation, which comes from the word to animate, in a general English-Indonesian dictionary meaning turn (Wojowasito 1997). In general the animation is an activity switch, move inanimate objects; An inanimate object is given a boost of strength, spirit and emotions to be alive and moving, or just a memorable life.

    Actually, since ancient times, humans have tried menganimasi their motion pictures of animals, as found by the archaeologist in northern Spain Lascaux cave, had lived two hundred thousand years; They tried to catch the animals run fast motion, such as wild boar, bison or horses, he described with eight legs in different positions and stacked (Hallas and Manvell 1973:23).

    The ancient Egyptians turned their image with the order of pictures of the wrestlers who are struggling, as wall decorations. Created around
    in 2000 BC (Thomas 1958:8)

    Ancient Japanese painting shows a plot of the living, by deploying coils painting, made in the Heian period (794-1192) (Americana encyclopedias volume 19, 1976). Then came the toy called Thaumatrope around the 19th century in Europe, a sheet of thick cardboard discs, a picture of birds in a cage, which both sides left a rope tied to his right, when twisted by hand will give the bird moving images santir (Laybourne 1978:18) .

    Until the 1880s, Jean Marey portrait using a continuous record streak of movement of birds flying, human activities and other animals. A tool that became the forerunner of film cameras is a growing life to date. And in 1892, Emile Reynauld developed a toy called Praxinoscope ayng animated images, a series of hundreds of animated images are rotated and projected on a mirror into a motion movie, a tool precursor in cinema projector (Laybourne 1978:23).

    Both novice filmmaker cinema, comes from the French, dianggapsebagai initial opening of the development of animated film techniques (Encyclopedia
    AmericanavoLV1, 1976:740

    Ten years later after the movie of life improved greatly in his late 19th century. In 1908, Emile Cohl beginners of French film
    simple animation of a matchstick figure. The series of pictures blabar black (black line) made on a white sheet, was photographed with the film negative so that the visible figure and background to white to black.

    While in the United States of Winsor McCay (see picture beside) animated film "Gertie the Dinosaur" in 1909. Blabar figures drawn in black with a white background. Following in the following years the American animator animated films began developing the technique around 1913 to the early 1920s; Max Fleischer to develop "Ko Ko The Clown" and Pat Sullivan to make "Felix The Cat". The series of drawings made as simple as possible, where the figure is drawn blabar unite black or black shadow against a background of basic blabar black or made otherwise. McCay create a formula film with
    computation time, 16 times per second in motion pictures.

    Fleischer and Sullivan have made use of animation techniques sell, that is transparent sheets of celluloid material (Celluloid) called ldquo; cell ".
    Another beginner in Germany, Lotte Reineger, in 1919, developing animated films shadows, and Bertosch of France, in the 1930 animated film making experimental pieces with figures derived from pieces of wood. The following figure is a figure "Gertie The Dinosaurs", and "Felix the Cat"

    George Pal started using the dolls as a figure in a short animated film, in 1934 in the Netherlands. And Alexsander Ptushko from Russia
     length puppet animation film "The New Gulliver" in 1935.

    In 1935 Len Lye from Canada, started drawing directly on film after entering the renewal of the color film through the film "Color of Box". The development of the most important animated film technique, which is around the 1930's. Where the animated film appears sound pioneered by Walt Disney of the United States, through the movie "Mickey Mouse", "Donald Duck" and "Silly Symphony" made during 1928 to 1940.

    In 1931 Disney animated film in the first color film "Flowers and Trees". And the length of the first animated cartoon movie made Disney in 1938, the film "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs"

    Thus the origin of the development of film animation technique that continues to evolve with the style and characteristics of each manufacturer in various countries in Europe, in America and spread through countries in Asia. Especially in Japan, a cartoon developed rapidly there, until this year in the decade to master cartoon animated film market here with distinctive characteristics and style.

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